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VMware VCP-DCV (Updated for vSphere 7) (In Production)

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Episodes
Episodes
  • vSphere and the Software-Defined Data Center
    • Basic virtualization concepts
    • vSphere the SDDC and the cloud infrastructure
    • ESXi host architecture
    • Install an ESXi host
    • Using the DCUI to configure an ESXi host
    • Using the Host Client to configure an ESXi host
  • Virtual Machines
    • Create and provision a virtual machine
    • VMware Tools
    • What makes a VM tick?
    • What are the parts of a container system?
  • vCenter Server
    • vCenter Server architecture
    • Deploy and configure the vCenter Server Appliance
    • How to manage the vCenter Server inventory
    • Joining a Domain and Adding an Identity Source
    • Roles, permissions enable access objects vCenter
    • Back up vCenter Server Appliance
    • Monitor tasks, events, and appliance health
    • HA to protect a vCenter Server Appliance
  • Configuring and Managing Virtual Networks
    • vSphere Networking Vocabulary
    • Create and manage standard switches
    • Config virtual switch security, traffic-shaping
    • Configure virtual switch load-balancing policies
    • Create and manage distributed switches
  • Configuring and Managing Virtual Storage
    • vSphere Storage vocabulary
    • Identify storage protocols, storage device types
    • Create and manage VMFS datastores
    • Create and manage NFS datastores

Basic virtualization concepts

18 M

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  • Episode Description
  • Transcript

Mike and Adam help you to identify and understand the basic concepts of virtualization when using VMware vSphere ESXi7.

First things first, basic virtualization concepts coming up next. >> You're watching ITProTV. [MUSIC] >> Hello everybody, welcome to VMware VCP-DCV, updated for vSphere 7. I'm your host, Mike Rodrick, and with me today is none other than Mr. Adam Gordon. And in this episode, we're gonna be taking a look at some basic virtualization concepts. And so, Adam, when it comes to understanding virtualization, this foundational knowledge is pretty important, right? So, where do we start? >> So, it's a great question to ask, because you wanna, often we say begin at the beginning. But what we're gonna do is, actually talk about three very important elements of what makes virtualization possible. We'll define what VMs are, kind of the components that make them up, why we need them, the way we consume them. We'll talk about compatibility, how we know things will work together, hopefully, anyway. And we'll talk about what makes all the magic happen. This mythical beast we call the hypervisor, all that is what we call basic virtualization concepts. >> All right, great. Sounds good. Let's start at the beginning then, what the heck is a virtual machine? How do we define that? >> Sure. So, we think about virtual machines, probably the easiest way to talk about them is to show you the components, as I was suggesting just a moment ago, join me here, if you will. We're gonna take a look at what makes a virtual machine, so to speak, a virtual machine. Now, Mike, you and I talk a lot about virtualization, Mike and I both use Hyper-V extensively. And we often will compare and contrast what the key features and capabilities are across different virtualization platforms. Well, regardless of what those are, I think we can agree that there are some basic elements that make up a virtual machine. So, in no particular order, but certainly important nonetheless, we think about virtual machines. We think about them as essentially being carbon copies of physical machines, they work the same way. They use the same operating systems, they achieve the same business requirements for sharing information, providing services, whatever the case may be. And as a result, they use the same ingredients. And so, when I think of virtual machines, I think of things like CPUs, essentially the brains of a virtual machine. We call them vCPUs in the VMware world, meaning virtual CPUs, and lowercase V is the VMware hallmark for all the things they identify. So, CPUs, one or more of them. We think about memory, random access memory, but also virtual memory more broadly, which is the normal kind of memory we think of, but the extended capabilities of paging using the storage system we're able to provide additional memory. Now, we usually will hear paging also referred to as virtual memory, so that's often a term we use. Here we're saying virtual memory to include the RAM, as well as the paging capabilities, kind of all-in-one, if you think about it that way. We also have to think about where we're gonna put all the stuff we wanna create, and potentially where we're gonna page in and out of, that implies storage. So we wanna think about one or more hard disks that are gonna be available to us. These can be provisioned in a number of ways. We'll later in the course talk extensively about storage, and a storage can be used, whether it's storage in the host itself, storage over the network using a SAN, storage area network, or a NAS, network attached storage. Using one or more storage protocols, dibre channel, fibre channel over ethernet, and/or iSCSI, the three big common protocols we often use for storage. We'll talk all about that. And then finally, we need a way to communicate from this machine into other machines. And to connect, potentially, to things outside, beyond the virtual world, we need one or more network cards, one or more network interfaces, we call those vNICS, virtual network interface cards. All these together, all four of them make up what we call the Fab Four, the four food groups, that we often talk about, that feed a virtual machine. >> All right, Adam, well, you weren't kidding, it really is a carbon copy of my physical machine, I see CPU, memory disk, and network. So, that begs the question, what's the benefit? Why do we even wanna virtualize in the first place? >> Sure, so, you know, it's another great follow-up question that Mike's asking. Is to consider which is, okay, so you've told me what all the things are, we agree they pretty much are identical, except for the word, virtual, in front of them. But, why wouldn't I just use a physical machine if I have all this and it basically is the same? There are three distinct reasons, there are many, but three in particular we'll focus on to answer Mike's question. Number one is portability. A virtual machine can easily be moved between locations, and perhaps among, and as well as between locations, among the physical infrastructure within a single location. Supportability becomes very important, we'll talk more about that in a moment. Number two on our hit list is, extensibility or expandability, or if we wanna think about it, maybe in a more generic way, it's the idea of scalability, is what we often hear about. VMs can be added to our systems easily, but they could also be modified on the fly, we'll talk more about that. And then finally, the third major reason is what we would call, kind of similar to scalability, elasticity, this ability to be able to take a virtual machine and to clone it, making it very easy to deploy it, but also to scale it on demand. So let's go back and talk first about this idea of portability. We think about VMs, right? We think about traditional use cases for virtual machines, or now replacing physical machines with virtual machines. We think of racking and stacking infrastructure in our data center behind us, as we often talk about. Maybe it's my laptop as a physical machine, maybe Mike's, that he's using, we're both using laptops that are running a Windows OS currently, and potentially maybe we wanna reproduce that. They're laptops, I can unplug my laptop and go run over, and give it to Mike, he could easily see it. And we could take them home and put them in another system somewhere pretty easily, but they're portable. What about the racked and stacked infrastructure sitting behind me here? It'd be a lot harder to move that server, that 4U, 8U server sitting behind us, our Thunder Lizard, Mike, for instance. Our file server that we use here, that Mike runs some of his VMs on. It's not as portable, it's a pretty big, bulky box. You often see it in the corner, over behind me, with the little ITProTV logo lighting up in front of it on the stand, in the wide shot, and that's not portable. If I had to send that to Mike in another location, I'd have to box that up, ship it to them, or get somebody to drive it over there. Not really easy to do. VMs can be sent over the wire as digital bits, we can transfer them like we would any other file. We have automated technology at scale today in the cloud, where most virtual infrastructure runs, that allows us to replicate VMs as part of what we call BCDR, business continuity and disaster recovery. And as a result of that, a virtual machine can be over here now, and I could literally throw it over and Mike can catch it, if Mike's paying attention, let's try that one more time. Mike can catch it, and Mike can run it over there, good catch. Mike can run it over there almost immediately, literally, just the reality of spinning it up in his hypervisor and bringing it together is all we have to worry about. So, that portability is a really big issue for us from a business continuity disaster recovery risk management perspective. But I mentioned that we have scalability and elasticity. The idea of making a change to the VM at scale. So, Mike, let's say the VM I just sent over to you is, let's say a pretty standard VM. It's probably got maybe two or four CPU cores. It's probably got, let's say maybe, I don't know, 32 gigs of virtual memory, a hard drive, and at least one virtual NIC, pretty straightforward. But let's say you wanna change those specs. Cuz you say, you know, Adam? That's okay, but I need more. Cuz, if 32 gigs is good, 64 gigs is probably better. >> Better, yeah. >> Right, especially if somebody else is paying the bill. And so, Mike wants to make a change. Well, in the traditional world, if that was racked and stacked physical infrastructure, we'd have to turn that system off. We'd have to acquire the parts, the physical memory, and the CPUs or whatever. We'd have to open that machine up, perform a little surgery. We'd have to open it up, add some things in, probably take things out, put other things in. Assuming we have enough extensibility in the motherboard to allow for that. Now, maybe we do, maybe we don't. But we'd be offline for a period of time. And then Mike would put it all back up, turn it back on, and hopefully, of course, it would all work, and things would be okay, and system would come back on. But, that operating system may or may not like that memory, may or may not recognize it. There's all these unknowns, right? But in the virtual world, Mike can adjust the parameters of that running virtual machine in real time. With hot add and hot swap from memory and CPUs, assuming the VM supports the operating system, supports it. And as long as that's the case, Mike can say, Adam, I'm gonna make that change right now, and we're up and running, and we're still running. We don't see any interruption in service, which is actually really important. So this idea of scalability and elasticity that we talked about is critical, cuz, throwing the VM over to Mike, that way. I could throw it the other way, it will come around, you'd have to catch it from the other side, right? But throwing it over to Mike, getting him to put it on is good. But if he's stuck with that same configuration, that may or may not meet the requirements that Mike has, and Mike wants to be able to add additional services, so he now has the flexibility. So, all these reasons are why we can take this infrastructure, reproduce it, but extend it and make it fit our business needs as we use those VMs. >> Awesome, all right. Well [COUGH], sounds like some really good benefits of virtualizing. But I'm guessing that I can't just virtualize anything on any platform, I've got compatibility to worry about. Is there some place I can go to get some information about that? >> Absolutely, so, you know VMware, like all virtualization vendors today, we mentioned Microsoft, Google, certainly in Google Cloud, Amazon. They all have some sort of compatibility matrix, is what you often heard vendors call it, where you can go and look things up. And VMware is no exception. For the exam, probably good for you to note. This is called the VMware Compatibility Guide. URL is there. It's in the show notes, definitely take a look. We're gonna take you there now, just to show you what it looks like. But to answer Mike's question definitively, absolutely, we have this great interactive web resource. So, let's just go click on this, the link will load in a browser here in just a second. Comes right up. And what we're able to do is, let's just zoom in so we can see this. Is, we can go in by product release version, we're here talking about ESXi 7.0, so we just wanna note that, obviously. But we have partners here, and maybe we're gonna think about a certain partner that we wanna get systems from. A certain system type, maybe it is a blade solution. And maybe it's a blade solution from Action, or maybe ADLINK or AdvanTech, or who knows what, whatever the vendor is. By the way, none of them paid us any promotional information money, or any consideration to put their name on screen. But you could see here, we have all sorts of features. Maybe Mike wants to know about persistent memory, or SR-IOV, single route IO virtualization, whatever the feature is he's looking for. We could start making some choices here. And then we can go over, and we can begin to lay out the exact specs of the system, how much memory, how many cores, how many CPU solutions. And when we're all done at the bottom here, let's just zoom out so you can see this. We come over here. And we can update and view results, and we get this printout, essentially, of what system or systems will operate according to the specs we want. Now, it's not 100% guaranteed that this means it will work. But, given the vendors, given the fact they're certified vendors in the VMware program, it's very likely that that will be the case, unless something weird goes on. But it's good indication of compatibility, and as a result, to answer Mike's question, a good indication of what should work for us, which is very important. >> All right, well, that's a big help there. Now, we also wanna make sure we understand, what is the hypervisor? I know you mentioned Hyper-V. And, I don't think that's what we're using here in VMware, right? >> No, no, hopefully not, VMware would probably be a little upset, so would Microsoft if we use the Hyper-V hypervisor. VMware has its own hypervisor, as a matter of fact. ESXi is the hypervisor that VMware provides. Now, people don't often realize this, ESXi is an operating system. Essentially the same, although limited in its footprint, as Windows Server 2019, or Server 2016, where we get the Hyper-V hypervisor from Microsoft, a feature that is built into the operating system, that we essentially add in, or turn on. And as a result, ESXi operates the same way. ESXi is the operating system, vSphere ESXi is VMware's, in this case, operating system. And the software component that provides the hypervisor is what Mike's asking about, what is that hypervisor. A hypervisor does three really important things for us. It allows us, we kind of talked about one of these already. It allows us to be able to provide physical hardware resources dynamically to virtual machines, the memory, the virtual CPUs, the storage, the hard drive, and potentially one or more virtual network cards, are all provided from the physical host. The host is the actual physical machine, the racked and stacked infrastructure, the laptop where I may choose to install ESXi, and run one or more virtual machines. By the way, in the VMware world, in the language of VMware, we call a virtual machine a guest operating system, that's what you often hear VMs referred to as. And so, when we wanna run guest operating systems, we wanna run VMs, we need one or more ESXi hosts to be able to provide the hypervisor, the VM kernel is the actual hypervisor that ESXi provides. And as a result, that provides the physical hardware, and gives us the capability, not just to give that to the VM, but as we talked about, where Mike said, I wanna add and modify those settings potentially, scalability elasticity, dynamically provides them to the VMs. So we're able to resource share and resource allocate on demand. Growing and shrinking our resource allocations from the host using the hypervisor, first very important thing it does. Now, it does two additional things, so we wanna highlight those. The hypervisor also allows VMs, again, guest operating systems, to operate with a degree of independence from that underlying physical hardware. We said we can move a VM from one host to another, I said I'll throw it over to Mike, he'll catch it. And, that's good. Now, Mike, correct me if I'm wrong, cuz we both talk about hypervisors in our respective areas. But, in Hyper-V, we call this ability to be able to move VMs around independently from the physical hardware, something a little bit different than what we call it in VMware. >> Yeah. >> VMware, we call this vMotion, and maybe storage vMotion depending on what we're doing and how we're doing it. In Hyper-V, we call this something different, it works the same, but we call it something different. >> We call this one, live migration. >> Live migration, right? That's what happens when you're the second VMware. You're the second virtualization vendor that comes up with this idea. VMware created the technology that ultimately leads to vMotion. They pioneered it, they got to name it. And Microsoft was second to market. They called theirs live migration. Let you know a little secret, I like live migration better, I think it speaks more accurately to what we're doing. So I think they actually got the better name. But, vMotion is what we've called this technology for a long time, the ability to move a running VM in real time with no loss of continuity. We don't lose access to our data. We don't drop any, maybe one packet, but we almost drop no packets at all, traditionally, especially if our networking is good. And, users that are connected don't lose any access to services in real time. I can take this VM, push a button, it transfers over the network, with over a network, potentially, with at least up to, perhaps even in excess of 100 milliseconds of latency, with no loss of continuity. That is pretty impressive. That means you could transfer this almost anywhere in the world, and still have it running in real time. So, this is an incredibly important part of what the hypervisor does. We're gonna talk a lot more about this in upcoming episodes. You're gonna see the actual thought process behind vMotion in action, we'll show you how it's done. And finally, when we talk about hypervisors, the last thing we do. So we consolidate all of these resources, so the CPU, the memory storage, networking, the fabulous four food groups that I talked about, into what we call pools of resources. Allowing us to allocate them to multiple virtual machines running on the same host, in whatever way Mike decides he wants to carve up his resources, as we talked about. And by pulling these resources, we could create clusters of hosts. We call these clusters in VM, again, in VMware rather, something a little bit different than we do over on the Hyper-V side. But ultimately, we refer to these as host clusters. And when we add in technologies at scale to allow us to do this, we can put multiple hosts together, piling up these resources, allowing virtual machines to run against those resources at scale, and to move among and between the host in the clusters to be managed globally. And so this is really the capability, or the capability set that ultimately the hypervisor provides, just putting them all on screen for us. This is the magic, the secret ingredient that makes, not just VMware, but all virtualization solutions as powerful as they are today. As we look at the cloud, and look at what this has happened, what's done with this, and how this has happened, really to transform our world, it's what the hypervisor does, at the root of all this, that makes the modern data center possible. >> All right, Adam, great stuff. They're a really good look at those basic virtualization concepts. We start at the very beginning. We talked about what a virtual machine was. We saw it was really, just a carbon copy of our physical machine. We just throw virtual in front of everything, and a little more to it than that, but we covered that. We also took a look at what the benefits were. If it's an exact copy, why do I wanna virtualize in the first place? And we saw those benefits, that portability, scalability, elasticity, that virtualization brings to us. And then we took a look at compatibility, because that's always important. We gotta make sure that we can virtualize what it is we want to virtualize on the platform that we have, or where do we need to make those changes. And then we rounded things up, taking a look at what a hypervisor was. And we looked at VMware's ESXi hypervisor, and how that really does provide all of these things that we've talked about, and make virtualization possible. So we appreciate that, Adam. We hope everybody out there enjoyed watching this one. Stay tuned for more VMware VCP-DCV, updated for v7 coming your way. I've been your host, Mike Rodrick. >> I'm Adam Gordon. >> And we'll see you next time. >> Take care, everybody. >> Thank you for watching ITProTV. [MUSIC]

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